Hardness: 9 (Mohs)
Specific Gravity: 3.99 - 4.00
Refractive Index: 1.766 - 1.774
Chemical Composition: AI2O3
Mineral Information: Aluminum oxide, corundum group
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Sapphire meaning is closely related to metaphysical and spiritual properties. It believed to purify the mind, increasing faith and motivation, bringing happiness,easier to get new ideas in life. This stone would protect the wearer from feeling envious and make them feel closer to God.
It wasn't until the Middle Ages that the word "sapphire" was used to describe the sapphire we know today. Before then, going back to antiquity, sapphire (from the Greek word for blue) was used to refer to lapis lazuli, another blue gemstone. The Greeks used sapphire to curry favor with the god Apollo and wore it while visiting the Oracle of Delphi. Sapphire is associated with Abraham in the Judeo-Christian tradition and was one of the twelve precious stones incorporated into the breastplate of the High Priest of Israel.